Skip to content

ya sudah lah: pemerintah bijak, rakyat bekerja 121010

October 11, 2010

Selasa, 12/10/2010 07:52 WIB
Trio Ahli Pasar Tenaga Kerja Menangkan Nobel Ekonomi 2010
Nurul Qomariyah – detikFinance

Stockholm – Tiga ahli pasar tenaga kerja berhasil memenangkan penghargaan Nobel Ekonomi 2010. Salah satu pemenang, Peter Diamond merupakan salah satu kandidat calon anggota Dewan Bank Sentral AS yang ditolak karena dinilai tak memenuhi kualifikasi.

Ketiga pemenang Nobel Ekonomi 2010 itu adalah Peter Diamond dan Dale Mortensen dari AS dan Christopher Pissaride dari Inggris-Syprus. Juri Nobel menilai ketiganya berhasil memecahkan kepingan-kepingan masalah sektor tenaga kerja, termasuk menjawab pertanyaan mengapa pengangguran masih tinggi sementara jumlah lowongan pekerjaan yang dibuka cukup besar.

Juri menyebut ketiga ekonom itu dalam hal analisis atas pasar-pasar dengan gesekan-gesekan pencarian yang dapat membantu menjelaskan bagaimana tingkat pengangguran, lowongan kerja dan upah terpengaruh oleh aturan dan kebijakan ekonomi.

Dari ketiga pemenang itu, terdapat Profesor Peter Diamond yang merupakan salah satu kandidat anggota Dewan Gubernur Bank Sentral AS. Pada awal tahun 2010, Presiden AS Barack Obama menominasikan Diamond untuk menduduki salah satu dari 7 posisi di Dewan Bank Sentral AS.

Namun Senator dari Republik, Richard Shelby menolak nominasi profesor di MIT itu pada Agustus lalu dengan alasan pria berusia 70 tahun itu tidak memenuhi kualifikasi.

Meski telah ditolak dan kini memenangkan Nobel, Diamong mengaku dirinya tetap berharap bisa bergabung dengan bank sentral paling berpengaruh di dunia itu.

“Saya masih tetap berharap untuk mendapatkan persetujuan sebagai Gubernur The Fed dan bekerja dengan segala sesuatu yang perlu dilakukan the Fed, berkaitan dengan apa yang sudah kita lalui selama krisis finansial,” ujar Diamond seperti dikutip dari AFP, Selasa (12/10/2010).

Presiden Obama rencananya akan kembali menominasikan Diamond untuk masuk ke the Fed pada September mendatang, meski mendapat penolakan dari Shelby.

Ketiga pemenang Nobel Ekonomi ini dinilai memiliki pengaruh yang besar pada pandangan para

“Peter Diamond telah menunjukkan kenaikan kompensasi pengangguran telah membuat orang-orang memilih pekerjaan yang lebih baik sehingga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi ekonomi,” ujar Etienne Wasmer, dari lembaga prestisius Prancis, SciencesPO faculty.

Ekonom perburuhan dari Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Stefano Scarpetta juga menilai trio ilmuwan itu telah menyatakan kenaikan kompensasi yang mudah tidaklah cukup.

“Mereka menunjukkan bahwa Anda dapat memperbaiki sistem jika manfaat pengangguran dibarengi dengan sanksi bagi mereka yang tidak aktif mencari pekerjaan dan juga kebijakan untuk melonggarkan transisi kembali bekerja seperti training, konseling,” ujarnya.

Asisten profesor dari INSEAD, Amine Ouazad mengatakan, mereka membantu mengerti mengapa kenaikan upah bisa menaikkan jumlah tenaga kerja, kontra dengan yang selama ini diperkirakan. Dengan kata lain, semakin banyak pekerja bisa diserap dengan memberikan gaji yang lebih besar. Menurut teori tradisional, pasar seharusnya bekerja dengan sendirinya untuk menjamin para pencari kerja menemukan lowongan yang tersedia.

Penghargaan Nobel Ekonomi merupakan salah satu dari 6 penghargaan Nobel yang diciptakan oleh industrialis Swedia, Alfred Nobel. Penghargaan ini pertama kali diperkenalkan pada 1968 untuk mengenang 300 tahun Bank Sentral Swedia dan diberikan pertama kali pada tahun 1969.

(qom/qom)

Oct. 11, 2010, 11:04 a.m. EDT
Nobel for explaining why markets fail
Commentary: Searching adds frictions and costs to the economy

By MarketWatch
WASHINGTON (MarketWatch) — Three economists — including one rejected by the Senate as too inexperienced to work at the Federal Reserve — have won the Nobel prize in economics for their work in explaining why markets sometimes don’t work so well.

Trio Wins Nobel in Economics
Peter Diamond (center), Dale Mortensen (right) and Christopher Pissarides win the 2010 Nobel economics prize for their work developing theories that help explain how economic policies affect unemployment.

Specifically, Peter Diamond of MIT, Dale Mortensen of Northwestern University and Christopher Pissarides of the London School of Economics were honored for their insights into unemployment. It’s certainly a timely topic. Read MarketWatch’s related article on the 2010 prize.

The problem with unemployment is that, theoretically, it shouldn’t exist. Efficient market theory says unemployed workers should always be able to find a job if they just lower their standards enough, just as all employers should be able to find workers if they just lower theirs.

By this theory, all unemployment is voluntary.

Diamond, Mortensen and Pissarides reject that theory, arguing that it’s costly to find just the right job — that is, one that matches your skills and abilities and pays you what you are worth. From the employer’s point of view, it’s just as costly: All the applicants look pretty much the same at first; it’s not easy to tell beforehand if they can do the job, or whether you can find someone who’ll do the job for less. Searching, in sum, is costly.

The upshot of this research is that this searching — they called it “friction” — can make markets inefficient. Taking the first job offered, or hiring the first applicant would mean the economy wouldn’t work as well as it could. We’d get Ph.D.’s driving cabs, and high-school dropouts running nuclear plants.

Sometimes government policies can reduce the inefficiencies, but sometimes they can make them worse. Providing unemployment benefits can keep workers from accepting the wrong job out of desperation, but providing too many benefits can lead to search times running even longer than necessary.

The research begun by Diamond, the one whose nomination to the Fed was left languishing by the Senate, as well as Mortensen and Pissarides has been extended into other markets and other economic conundrums, helping us to understand how markets actually work, and how we can make them work better.

— Rex Nutting

OCTOBER 11, 2010, 10:54 A.M. ET
Trio Shares Nobel Economics Prize

By CHARLES DUXBURY

STOCKHOLM—American Peter Diamond and Dale Mortensen and British-Cypriot Christopher Pissarides won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Economics on Monday “for their analysis of markets with search frictions,” the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.

Peter Diamond, Dale Mortensen and Christopher Pissarides won the 2010 Nobel economics prize for developing theories that help explain how economic policies affect unemployment. Justin Lahart and David Weidner discuss. Also, Jonathan Cheng discusses why the recent stock rally has left bank shares behind.

The three laureates have developed a theoretical framework to examine how buyers and sellers look for each other in a marketplace and how the time and resources needed for this search can create friction resulting in some buyers or sellers failing to achieve their goals.

The framework seeks to explain, for example, why there are so many people unemployed at the same time as there are a large number of job openings.

Mr. Diamond, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, analyzed the foundations of such “search markets” while Mr. Mortensen, of Northwestern University, and Mr. Pissarides of the London School of Economics and Political Science in the U.K., applied the framework to the labor market.

The laureates’ models help to explain the ways in which unemployment, job vacancies, and wages are affected by regulation and economic policy and can also be applied to other areas including the housing market.

President Barack Obama has nominated Mr. Diamond, whose expertise in the labor market was noted at the time, to become a member of the Federal Reserve.

However, the Senate failed to approve his nomination before lawmakers left to campaign for the midterm congressional elections. Several Republicans object to his candidacy on the grounds that he has limited macroeconomic policy experience.

Senate Banking Committee Chairman Christopher Dodd (D., Conn.) has said he would hold a hearing on Mr. Diamond’s nomination when the Senate reconvenes after the November midterm elections.

The Nobel Prize in Economics was established by Sweden’s Riksbank in 1968 to mark the central bank’s 300th anniversary. The prize is awarded annually for “work of outstanding importance” in the field of economic science and the winners are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

The three economists will share a total prize of 10 million Swedish kronor ($1.5 million), the same amount as for other Nobel prizes, to be paid by the Riksbank.

Previous winners of the prize include Paul Krugman in 2008 and Thomas Shelling in 2005.

Advertisements

From → Global neh

Leave a Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: